Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) induce phenotypic imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used herbicides for weed control worldwide that potentially affect microorganisms, but the role of their sublethal exposure in the development of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is still not fully investigated. Here, the effects of glyphosate acid (GLY), five glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), and POE(15), a formerly used co-formulant, on susceptibility to imipenem, a potent carbapenem-type antibiotic, in one clinical and four non-clinical environmental P. aeruginosa isolates were studied.